ping, gping, traceroute, hogports – probe the Internet

ip/ping [ –6aflqr ] [ –i interval ] [ –n count ] [ –s size ] [ –w waittime ] destination

ip/gping [ –r ] [ –l ] [ –i interval ] destination [ destination ... ]

ip/traceroute [ –dn ][ –a n ][ –h nbuck ][ –t sttl ] dest

ip/hogports [mtpt/]proto!address!startport[–endport]

Ping sends ICMP echo request messages to a system. It can be used to determine the network delay and whether or not the destination is up. By default, a line is written to standard output for each request. If a reply is received the line contains the request id (starting at 0 and incrementing), the round trip time for this request, the average round trip time, and the time to live in the reply packet. If no reply is received the line contains the word "lost", the request id, and the average round trip time.

If a reply is received for each request, ping returns successfully. Otherwise it returns an error status of "lost messages".

The options are:
6     force the use of IPv6's ICMP, icmpv6, instead of IPv4's ICMP. Ping tries to determine which version of IP to use automatically.
a     adds the IP source and destination addresses to each report.
f     send messages as fast as possible (flood).
i     sets the time between messages to be interval milliseconds, default 1000 ms.
l     causes only lost messages to be reported.
n     requests that a total of count messages be sent, default 32.
q     suppresses any output (i.e. be quiet).
r     randomizes the delay with a minimum extra delay of 0 ms and a maximum extra delay of the selected interval.
s     sets the length of the message to be size bytes, ICMP header included. The size cannot be smaller than 32 or larger than 8192. The default is 64.
w     sets the additional time in milliseconds to wait after all packets are sent.

Gping is a ping with a graphical display. It presents separate graphs for each destination specified.

The options are:
r     display round trip time in seconds. This is the default.
l     display percentage of lost messages. A message is considered lost if not replied to in 10 seconds. The percentage is an exponentially weighted average.
i     sets the time between messages to be interval milliseconds, default 5000 ms.

Graphs can be dropped and added using the button 3 menu. Clicking button 1 on a datapoint displays the value of the datapoint and the time it was recorded.

Traceroute displays the IP addresses and average round trip times to all routers between the machine it is run on and dest. It does this by sending packets to dest with increasing times to live (TTL) in their headers. Each router that a packet expires at replies with an ICMP warning message. The options are: d     print debugging to standard error
n     just print out IP numbers, don't try to look up the names of the routers.
a     make n attempts at each TTL value (default 3).
t     set the starting TTL value to sttl (default 1).
h     print out a histogram of times from request to response at each TTL value. The histogram contains nbuck buckets.

Hogports announces on a range of ports to keep them from other processes. For example, to keep anyone from making a vncserver visible on the network mounted at /net.alt:
ip/hogports /net.alt/tcp!*!5900–5950